Election Insights
Election Insights is a political analysis publication of the Business Industry Political Action Committee (BIPAC). BIPAC is an independent, bipartisan organization, that is supported by several hundred of the nation’s leading businesses and trade associations.  The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of our organization.

March 18, 2015
Maryland Senate Race
By Bo Harmon

Maryland Democratic Senator Barbara Mikulski announced she would retire at the end of this term as the longest serving woman legislator in the history of Congress.  With the seat open for the first time in a generation, a number of candidates are expected to vie for the position.  Two Democratic house members, Rep. Chris Van Hollen and Rep. Donna Edwards have already announced their candidacies.  However, it would be surprising if the field doesn't grow substantially over the coming weeks.

Maryland is one of the most reliably Democratic states in the country.  It went for Obama 62-36 in 2012. While Maryland elected a Republican governor in 2014, it was due to a unique set of circumstances unlikely to be repeated in a Senate race in a Presidential year with larger Democratic turnout. With that in mind, the next Senator is likely to be chosen in the Democratic Primary.  Democratic votes in Maryland come predominately from three distinct areas: Montgomery County, Prince George's County, and Baltimore.  

Montgomery County, in the Washington suburbs, is one of America's wealthiest counties and while it is increasingly racially diverse, the county historically is known as a bastion of white, affluent, college educated liberals.  Montgomery County contributed 400,000 votes in 2012, the largest single jurisdiction in Maryland and went 71% for Obama.  Chris Van Hollen has represented the county in the House for thirteen years, is a power broker in House Democratic leadership and served as Chairman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee for the 2008 and 2010 cycles.  He is an aggressive fundraiser with a national fundraising base through his party leadership posts and is a highly skilled politician.  A big bank account will be needed because Washington DC's media market, which covers approximately 1/3 of the state, is one of the most expensive in the country.  Baltimore is less expensive than DC, but still a top 50 market.

Donna Edwards represents much of Prince George's County, adjacent to Montgomery County in the Washington suburbs. Prince George's County is the wealthiest African American majority county in America.   The county is 65% African American and had 350,000 votes in 2012, 90% of which went to Obama.  Edwards was elected in 2008 and is the only woman in the race to succeed the longest serving woman in Congress.  She is also seen as the most "progressive" candidate, so the Elizabeth Warren faction of the party is pushing her candidacy.

The biggest overall vote comes from the combination of Baltimore City and Baltimore County.  Between the two, over 580,000 votes were cast in 2012, with 87% of Baltimore City and 57% of Baltimore County going to Obama.  Currently no candidates from Baltimore have declared, but both Congressmen from the area, Elijah Cummings from the city and Dutch Ruppersberger from the county, are said to be actively considering bids.  Baltimore City Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake is seen as unlikely to run, potentially leaving Edwards as the only woman in the race.

Ruppersberger or Cummings could shake up the race in several ways.  First, they would have a natural political base in Baltimore which neither Van Hollen nor Edwards could match.  Edwards and Cummings are both African American and with big African American majorities in both Baltimore City and Prince George's, if both are in the race, the minority vote could split between the two.  Van Hollen and Ruppersberger are both white and represent majority white counties.  Both are also seen as more "establishment" than Edwards and, to an extent, Cummings.  There are many who would like to see Maryland elect its first African American member of the US Senate and many who would like to see a woman continue to represent the seat that has been held by Mikulski for so long. 

Van Hollen is likely to have the biggest financial war chest and strong political instincts as well as the support of Democratic Senate Leader Harry Reid. Edwards has appeal to the "progressive" wing of the party as well as female and African American voters.  Neither have a foothold in Baltimore City or County, home to more voters than either Prince George's or Montgomery County.  With race, ideology, gender and regional differences, candidates still making a decision on the race (which could dramatically shift the political calculus), all for a Senate seat that hasn't been open in a generation, the Democratic primary in Maryland is going to be a fascinating one to watch.

March 4, 2015
Why Department of Homeland Security Funding is a Big Deal
By Bo Harmon

If you look through US House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner's vote record, you will find that he very rarely votes on bills unless it is a very close vote where his could be decisive or it is a highly symbolic vote.  Even GOP hot-button issues such as ObamaCare repeal, Keystone pipeline authorization and taxpayer funding of abortion, Boehner has refrained from engaging directly with his vote on the floor. 

That is why Boehner's vote for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) funding, without associated provisions repealing President Obama's executive orders on immigration and deportation policy, is so remarkable.  In one of the few cases where Boehner DID weigh in, it was on a bill that would have easily passed without his vote (it passed 257-167) and more significantly, he broke away from his own party in the House who voted AGAINST the funding bill by a 75-167 margin.  

Boehner and House Republicans had previously passed a measure that would fund DHS but did include provisions repealing President Obama's executive actions on immigration.  It became clear that such a bill could not even reach the floor for a vote in the Senate where Democrats hold the ability to filibuster anything that would get less than 60 vote support (Republicans hold 54 seats).  So, the Senate passed a "clean" DHS funding bill that did not include the immigration provisions. Conservative activists pushed Boehner to keep the provisions and force a partial shutdown of DHS until the White House and Democrats gave in to the demands to repeal the immigration provisions.

Boehner's political calculus likely included the following:

  • Politically, Obama is helped, not hurt by fighting for the immigration provisions to remain, so he has little incentive to change course. 
  • Republicans hold both houses of Congress, and both have to pass a common bill to avoid a shutdown, so if only one type of bill can pass, Republicans would be held responsible for not passing it.  
  • At a time when we are seeing new atrocities from ISIS and others on a regular basis and being warned of international threats by Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu speaking to Congress at the request of Republicans, allowing DHS to shudder is a dangerous proposition, from both a national security and political perspective.

That Speaker Boehner chose to cast a very rare vote in this instance is more significant than it appears at first blush.  It demonstrates that Boehner is willing to break from conservative hardliners in his own party.  It represents a possible shift in course to fighting one battle at a time rather than wrapping multiple issues into a funding or other "must pass" bill.  It represents a commitment to a functional legislative process when that process is being managed by one party.  Significantly, it also signals a departure from the "Hastert Rule" which held that a bill must have majority support WITHIN the majority party to receive consideration.  These are all significant shifts from previous years when the House and Senate were controlled by different parties and both sides viewed political brinkmanship as standard operating procedure.

The commitment to a functional process and return to recognizing politics as "the art of the possible" is welcome news for many who have craved greater predictability and return to "regular order."  Boehner is likely to face blowback from some fellow Republicans, but his vote could signal a decisive step towards a focus on policy over politicking and its importance should not be overlooked.

February 25, 2015
2016 U.S. House Outlook
By Bo Harmon and Mike Mullen

The 2016 elections will play host to a bevy of exciting races that will determine which party controls the White House and the Senate. One entity that will likely be unphased by the elections is the House of Representatives. Simply put, the Republican majority is too large for Democrats to overcome in one election cycle.  The numbers are just not in their favor.

The current breakdown in the House of Representatives is 246 Republicans and 188 Democrats, with one seat vacant. This 58 seat advantage (possibly a 59 seat advantage after the special election to fill the vacancy in NY-11) means Democrats would need to win 30 races, or 60 seats, in order to take back majority control of the House (if Democrats defeat 30 Republican incumbents that would result in a 60 seat swing, giving Democrats the majority).There are currently 25 Republicans who sit in seats President Obama won in 2012, compared to five Democrats in seats Mitt Romney won. These are among the most competitive seats in the country and the Democrats would need to win all of them, without losing a single other seat, to attain their goal.

Prior to the 2014 elections, there were 38 House races rated by Larry Sabato as "Toss Ups" or "Lean" towards one party or the other. Of those 38, Republicans won 22 and Democrats won 16. On Election Day, there ended up being only 26 races decided by six percentage points or less. Republicans won 11 of those 26, but again, even if Democrats swept them ALL, they would be short of a majority. That does not include the handful of races predicted to be close but ended up being easy wins for Republicans. Rather, of those 26, most were unexpectedly difficult fights for Democrats as Republicans were able to expand the map deep into Democratic territory. Obviously some races predicted to be safe ended up being competitive and vice versa, but the fact is that due to redistricting in 2012, there are too few competitive seats for Democrats to have a realistic shot at winning a majority in the House in 2016.

Some Democrats are hoping a Hillary Clinton Presidential campaign will propel their candidates to victory across the country. If history is any indicator, this is wishful thinking. Only once in the last 100 years has a party continued control of the White House after a two term presidency (When George HW Bush succeeded Reagan in 1988).  Otherwise stated, the Democrats are betting on a historic election just to maintain control of the White House and would need that coupled with unprecedented gains to win a majority in the House.  It is very possible that Democrats will not be in striking distance of the majority until after the next census in 2020, when districts will be redrawn to fit the population.


February 18, 2015
Republicans Just Won the Senate, Why Are They Already on Defense?
By Bo Harmon

In 2013, the Baltimore Ravens were Super Bowl Champions and the most dominant team in football.  The very next season, they went 8-8 and didn't even get a wild card spot in the playoffs.  We may well see the same phenomena in U.S. Senate elections this cycle.  2014 saw historic gains for Republicans up and down the ballot.  In the Senate, they picked up nine seats formerly held by Democrats to take a 54-46 majority.  But they are already on defense for 2016.  While policy and candidate differences always play an important role in elections, they are magnified in smaller, more local elections while demographic and historic partisan vote patterns play a larger role in statewide and national elections.  

In Presidential elections, more Democratic leaning minorities and young voters participate, giving Democrats an edge.  In midterm elections, fewer minorities and young voters participate, giving Republicans better odds.  Typically, the electorate is 2-3% more Republican during midterm elections compared to Presidential elections.  

In 2014, Democrats had 21 seats to defend, seven of which were in states carried by Mitt Romney just two years before.  Republicans had 15 seats up, but only one in a state carried by Obama.  Democrats lost all of the seats in Romney carried states and two others in Obama states.  Republicans held all GOP seats that were up.  So, yes, it was a good year for Republicans up and down the ballot, but in the Senate at least, they were fighting on very friendly territory with a midterm electorate that leans more Republican.

The 2016 elections are the mirror image.  The electorate in Presidential years is 2-3% more Democratic than in midterm elections.  Republicans have 24 seats up, with seven in states carried by Obama in 2012.  Democrats have only ten seats up and none in states carried by Romney.  The exact same advantages that Republicans held in 2014 - a more friendly electorate and a number of seats in states carried by their party - the Democrats will hold in 2016.  

Candidates and policy differences always matter.  You can't beat somebody with nobody and in several potentially vulnerable Republican seats, Democrats have yet to land top tier challengers, but the playing field and demographics is certainly to their advantage.  Will Republicans in the Senate look more like the Seattle Seahawks who went to back to back Super Bowls or more like the Baltimore Ravens, winning the big one only to fall hard the very next season?  It's too early to tell, but the demographics and vote patterns are certainly not in the Senate GOP's favor.

January 28, 2015
Importance of Voting
By Briana Huxley

Everyone has heard the saying, "if you don't vote, you can't complain."  If this was true, after the 2014 midterms, only 36% of the voting eligible population would be allowed to complain about government, which no one can argue is a good thing (except maybe Congress). There are several reasons people do not vote: time constraints, lack of interest, voting obstacles, and most commonly, people do not believe their vote counts.  In a time when voter participation is significantly low, and primaries (where participation is even lower) are becoming increasingly important, races are being decided by smaller margins and it is harder to argue that your vote does not matter.

As stated above, in 2014 only 36% of the voting eligible population voted.1  The last time turnout was this low during a midterm election was 1942.  Presidential election years have higher participation rates, though they still hover around only 60%.  In 2012, voter turnout declined 4% from 2008.2   When you look at primary elections, the numbers get even more dismal.  As of July 2014, in the 25 states that had held primaries, voter turnout was down 18% from 2010. In some states such as Iowa, voter turnout was as low as 9.7%.3  When states have runoff primaries, the numbers are even more dismal, between 1994 and 2014, average voter turnout decline between primaries and runoffs was 35%.4  As Congress has become more polarized and inefficient, primaries have become more of a focus, especially in 2014 and going forward.  More and more seats are in safe Republican or Democratic districts and the primaries are the time the next Congressman or Senator is truly selected.  If anyone wants to maximize the power of their vote, vote in the primary elections. 

In 2014, there were several close races where the winner was decided by a hair, in the primary and/or general elections.  In Mississippi, incumbent Senator Thad Cochran lost the primary by 2,000 votes, before pulling off a 6,500 vote victory in the primary runoff.  Sen. Schatz in Hawaii won the Democratic primary with less than 2,000 votes.  In Alaska, incumbent Senator Mark Begich was defeated in the general election by about 8,000 votes.  Alaska's governor was defeated by even less, about 4,000 votes.  In Vermont, Gov. Shumlin won the popular vote by only 2,000 votes and since he did not win 50%, had to wait until January to be voted in by the state legislature.  In the House, many races were even closer.  Arizona's 2nd district was decided by less than 200 votes.  In California 7, Congressman Bera won by about 500 votes. In Tennessee 4, scandal plagued Rep. Scott DesJarlais still won reelection, by just 36 votes!

As we head into 2016, it is important to remember the power of the vote. Voting in primaries and general elections are key to getting your voice heard.

1.     http://www.electproject.org/2014g
2.     http://www.fairvote.org/research-and-analysis/voter-turnout/
3.     http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2014/07/23/voter-turnout-in-primary-elections-this-year-has-been-abysmal/
4.     http://www.fairvote.org/assets/Primaries/Federal-Primary-Election-Runoff-Turnout-2014-updated-11.17.14.pdf

January 21, 2015
2016 Vulnerable Republicans
By Briana Huxley and Mike Mullen

In 2016, Democrats will need a net gain of 5 seats to flip the chamber.  Unlike in 2014, it is the Republicans that will be playing defense in two years, having to hold 24 seats to the Democrat's 10.  Even further, 7 Republicans are sitting in states that President Obama carried in 2008 and 2012 (and one in a state Obama won in 2008) and there are no Democratic Senators sitting in states that Romney won.  While it is still early in the cycle, here are 8 races that Democrats will be targeting:

Marco Rubio (FL):  If Senator Rubio runs for President this is expected to become an open seat, since Rubio has repeatedly stated he will not run for both offices.  If he runs for a second term, he starts out with an advantage, but a strong Democratic challenge could put this race in play, especially during a Presidential election year. That said, Democrats do not have a very deep bench in Florida and will need a very strong candidate to beat Rubio should he seek reelection.

Mark Kirk (IL):  Senator Kirk is one of the more vulnerable Senators on the list.  Kirk is still undergoing rehab from a stroke in 2012, but has said he is running.  Potential Democratic opponents include Rep. Tammy Duckworth and Attorney General Lisa Madigan.  Obama won Illinois by 17 points in 2012 and Kirk only won with 48% of the vote in 2010. 

Chuck Grassley (IA):While there was speculation that Senator Grassley, who is 81, would retire in 2016, he has announced that he is running again.  As long as he is in the race, IA should remain in Republican hands.  He goes into 2016 with almost 2 million in his war chest to date and a lucrative seat as Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Kelly Ayotte (NH):Freshman Senator Ayotte starts out with $2 million and won in 2010 with 60% of the vote.  Democrats are hopeful Gov. Maggie Hassan will challenge Ayotte, though a recent poll has Ayotte winning by 5 points and Hassan has not yet made it clear she wants to run. Other potential candidates include Rep. Anne McLane Kuster and former Governor John Lynch.

Rob Portman (OH): Senator Portman has announced he will not be running for President in 2016, leaving him, for now, running for re-election.  He currently has almost $6 million in the bank and right now there are few top tier Democrats lining up to challenge him. The one Democrat who could clear the primary field would be former Governor Ted Strickland, who is still considering a bid. Additionally, tea party activists and social conservatives in the state may try to mount a primary challenge, in opposition to Portman's support for same sex marriage.

Pat Toomey (PA):Former Rep. Joe Sestak (D) has already signaled his interest in the race, though Democrats may be looking elsewhere for other nominees.  Senator Toomey has $5.6 million to work with so far, but he could have a tough time, especially in a presidential year.

Ron Johnson (WI): Wisconsin will be a race to watch for 2016.  Senator Johnson has been low in approval ratings and is more conservative than his respective state.  In 2010, Johnson put in almost $9 million of his own money, though he has said he will not do that again.  Former Sen. Russ Feingold, who Johnson defeated in 2010, may run again.    

Richard Burr (NC):Senator Burr was the subject of some speculation recently, given his paltry fundraising and seeming lack of enthusiasm, but he has since made clear that he intends to run for reelection. President Obama won the state by a small margin 2008 and lost by an even smaller margin in 2012, so this has the potential to be an extremely competitive race. The issue for Democrats will be candidate recruitment, and recently defeated former Democratic Senator Kay Hagan has not ruled out a run.

January 14, 2015
Early Movement on the Presidential Race
By Bo Harmon

The 2014 elections are only two months past but already we are seeing a lot of early movement on the Presidential front.  The biggest bombshell of course is Jeb Bush's announcement that he is aggressively exploring a run and raising money for a campaign.  Many others have continued to hint that they too will run and a couple have removed themselves from consideration.

The latest on the whole mix:


Hillary Clinton:Clinton has not officially announced that she is running but has continued to lay the foundations for a campaign, including hiring a campaign manager and chief fundraiser for her PAC, which is considered the campaign staging ground.  Age and health concerns continue to swirl around her however and keep the door cracked for other candidates who have Presidential ambitions.  Most other potential candidates are waiting for Clinton to make a final decision before making their own decisions.

Elizabeth Warren: The Senator from Massachusetts is the champion of the party's left wing and many in that camp are encouraging her to run whether Clinton runs or not.  Warren has said repeatedly that she is not intending to run, but continues to court support from the left.

Martin O'Malley: The outgoing Governor of Maryland has had his eye on the White House since he was old enough to say the words and even before leaving office, he traveled extensively to meet with fundraisers and political leaders in the party.  He has assembled a staff to run his PAC, which would transition to a campaign should he decide to run.  If Clinton does NOT run, O'Malley is most certainly a candidate.  If she does run, he may run anyway as a way to audition for Vice President or if Clinton stumbles for some reason.

Jim Webb: The former Senator from Virginia has announced an exploratory committee and would likely represent the more centrist wing of the party (similar to Bill Clinton's positioning), but he has gathered very little attention as a candidate since his announcement and at this point isn't being taken seriously as a candidate.


Jeb Bush:The former Florida Governor and son and brother of the other two Presidents Bush surprised the political world earlier this month by announcing that he was actively planning a campaign for President.  He had been rumored to have been toying with the idea, but most expected him to pass on a race.  His name and relationships immediately put him at the front of the pack.  BUT the GOP, especially the primary voters, have moved substantially to the right since Bush last ran and the name and associations with his dad and brother are a double edged sword - helpful for fundraising and organizing, but also the negative impressions among some conservatives that remain from their administrations.

Rand Paul: Senator Paul of Kentucky represents the more libertarian leanings of the modern Republican Party and has hired some top political operatives to guide his campaign.  Like Bush, Paul inherits the double edged sword of having his father, Ron Paul, run twice for President.  The older Paul had a small but very intense supporter base that the Senator will hope to grow with more mainstream appeals than his father used.

Scott Walker: The Wisconsin Governor is a political survivor who has won three elections in a democratic leaning state in four years.  He was first elected in 2010, faced a recall vote when he pushed labor reforms early in his administration and then won a tough reelection this past November.  Walker has also assembled a highly regarded team and is expected to campaign on a platform of making tough decisions to fix the budget and turn around the economy of a left leaning state.

Chris Christie: The Governor of New Jersey has not made a secret of his interest in running and this last election cycle tirelessly traveled the country campaigning with and raising money for candidates, building as many political favors as possible.  The Governor's gruff approach has suited him well in New Jersey where he has won easy victories in this heavily Democratic state.  How that "New Jersey Tough Guy" approach plays with voters in other parts of the country remains to be seen.

Ted Cruz: The tea party's favorite Senator courted speculation all last year that he would run for President but has been strangely silent about it for the last few months and has made no moves such as hiring national staff or campaigning actively in early primary states that would further that conversation.  The Texas firebrand would highlight the ideological rifts within the Republican Party and his participation would certainly energize tea party oriented activists.

Mitt Romney: After months of saying he did not intend to run again, Mitt Romney, the GOP's 2012 nominee, has changed course and is now calling former aides and fundraisers with the message that he is interested in another shot at the White House.  Like Bush, his name identification, political organization and fundraising contacts are very broad, but he faces serious questions about why he would be able to win after coming up short in both 2008 and 2012.

Ben Carson: The African American surgeon has become a favorite of the tea party with his outspoken criticisms of President Obama's health care law and other calls for cutting government.  He is the only candidate who has officially announced his campaign so far.  Whether he is able to grow his appeal and name awareness beyond his current small but loyal following will determine his success.

Other candidates who are considering campaigns include Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, former Arkansas Governor and 2008 candidate Mike Huckabee, former Senator and 2012 candidate Rick Santorum, Texas Governor and 2012 candidate Rick Perry, and Florida Senator Marco Rubio.  Jindal is expected to officially enter the race in the next few months while Huckabee and Santorum have both said they are considering it.  Rubio was long expected to run for President as a younger, Hispanic voice for the party but Bush's entrance into the race may change that because it would be harder for Rubio to fundraise in his home state of Florida, which is Bush's home state as well.


December 31, 2014
What to Look for in the Year Ahead
By Mike Mullen

The 2014 elections are in the books and with just months to go until 2015 primary elections begin, what better time than now to prepare for next year?  2015 will hold three Gubernatorial elections in Kentucky, Louisiana, and Mississippi; as well as races for control of the State Legislature in Louisiana, Mississippi, Virginia, and New Jersey.  Additionally, there will likely be a special election in New York's 11th Congressional District following Rep. Michael Grimm's (R) resignation after his guilty plea for tax evasion.  For those of you in these states, it's already time to suit up for election season again!

In Kentucky, incumbent Democratic Governor Steve Beshear is term limited, meaning the open race should attract several candidates from both parties. The primary election is on May 19, 2015 - just five months away.  On the Democratic side, the only prominent candidate to declare thus far is Jack Conway, Kentucky's Attorney General and 2010 Senate nominee.  Additional potential Democrats include Kentucky House Majority Leader Rocky Adkins, Secretary of State and 2014 Senate nominee Alison Lundergan Grimes and Kentucky House Speaker Greg Stumbo.  For the Republicans, declared candidates include James Comer, Kentucky Agriculture Commissioner and former Louisville Councilman Hal Heiner.  Republicans who may yet throw their hat in the ring include businesswoman Cathy Bailey, businessman and one time Mitch McConnell nemesis Matt Bevin, and former Governor Ernie Fletcher.  Notably, no members of the Kentucky congressional delegation have indicated an interest in running.  The governor's race is particularly important this year as the Kentucky Legislature will not be voted on, meaning regardless of who wins the governorship, Democrats will hold the Kentucky House of Representatives and Republicans will hold the Kentucky Senate.

Louisiana is home to some of the quirkiest politics in the country, which should make their gubernatorial and state legislature races interesting.  In the Governor's race, incumbent Republican Bobby Jindal is term limited, so there will be an open seat.  On the Republican side, U.S. Senator David Vitter has declared his candidacy and appears to be the man to beat.  Other Republicans who have declared include Public Service Commissioner and former Lieutenant Governor Scott Angelle and current Lieutenant Governor Jay Dardenne.  For the Democrats, Public Service Commissioner Foster Campbell and Louisiana House Minority Leader John Bel Edwards have declared their candidacies, with many waiting to see whether or not New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu will get in the race.  This should be a fairly competitive race with Democrats unhampered by President Obama's unpopularity in the state and able to focus on local issues like education.  One interesting thing to watch will be how active outgoing Governor Bobby Jindal is, who is a known rival of Senator Vitter, and who is mulling a bid for the Presidency in 2016.  The Louisiana House is 58 Republicans to 45 Democrats and 2 Independents and the Senate is in Republican control with 24 in the GOP and 15 Democrats.  Not much is expected to change in the State Legislature at this point early in the race.

The last state with a gubernatorial race is Mississippi, where Republican Phil Bryant is up for reelection.  This is still a safe Republican seat, and the dynamic will only become interesting if he is challenged by a Tea Party candidate in the Republican primary.  There are some calling for Chris McDaniel to run, who narrowly lost to Senator Thad Cochran in the Republican primary this past year.  McDaniel did not handle his loss gracefully and still believes Cochran broke the law during the runoff election.  If McDaniel or another extremely conservative candidate can manage to knock off Bryant in the primary, the race will become competitive and potential Democratic candidates could be former U.S. Representative Travis Childers and Commissioner for the Northern District of the Mississippi Public Service Commission Brandon Presley.  The true chance for Democrats to shake things up in the state lies in the State House, currently controlled by Republicans 64 to 58.  A net gain of four seats would get them the majority and a chance to get their hands back on the levers of power.  The State Senate is controlled by Republicans 31 to 21.

Other races across the states includes Virginia's legislature, currently under Republican control 68 to 32 in the House of Delegates and 21 to 18 (with one vacancy) in the State Senate.  New Jersey will also be holding Legislative elections, where Democrats control the General Assembly 48 to 32 and the State Senate 24 to 16.  New York's 11th District encompassing Staten Island and Brooklyn will be having a special election at a point to be determined in early 2015 which is sure to garner attention given its competitiveness and proximity to the nation's largest media market.  Elections in some of the nation's largest cities will also be held next year, including Chicago, Denver, Dallas, Houston, Philadelphia and San Francisco, among others.


November 19, 2014
What to Expect in the Louisiana Runoffs
By Bo Harmon

Louisiana is unique in many ways, but one is how it conducts elections.  All candidates, regardless of party, run on the November general election ballot without first conducting primaries.  If one candidate gets over 50% of the vote, they are the winner.  Often though, with multiple Republicans, multiple Democrats and some third party candidates running, no candidate reaches the 50% threshold and then the top two vote getters, again, regardless of party, go to a runoff, held this year on December 6th.  The U.S. Senate race and two Congressional seats will be settled in a runoff this year.  While immediate majority control of the Senate or House is not at stake, the Senate race in particular COULD determine majority control in the next Congress.  In 2016, Senate Democrats face a favorable election map just as Republicans did this election cycle and they will be looking to retake the majority.  Whether they have to win four seats to do that rather than five could determine their success.

The two House runoffs are fairly predictable.   In the 5th district, Republican Ralph Abraham is facing Democrat Jamie Mayo.  Abraham is the prohibitive favorite as he led a field of six Republicans, including incumbent Vance McAllister, while Mayo was the only Democrat.  Mayo received 28% of the vote while Republican candidates collectively took 70% of the vote, almost all of which would be expected to go to Abraham in a runoff.

Similarly in the 6th District, Republican Garrett Graves is the expected successor to Bill Cassidy but faces Democrat Edwin Edwards, the 87 year old former Governor who was only recently released from prison on corruption charges.  Edwards is one of the most colorful characters in Louisiana politics, a state well known for colorful politicians.  Even still, the district is heavily Republican, with Republican candidates collecting almost 65% of the November vote and Graves is a well-liked figure from the area, having served senior staff roles with former Congressman Bill Tauzin and Governor Bobby Jindal. 

The Senate runoff is less predictable with Republican Congressman Bill Cassidy facing Democratic incumbent Mary Landrieu. 

Most of the traditional factors impacting elections favor Cassidy:  There is smaller turnout for runoffs than general elections, which favors the most committed and most impassioned voters, which this year means Republicans.  Polling has Cassidy up 7-10 points and Louisiana is a Republican leaning state anyway (Mitt Romney won by 17 points).  Republican candidates took 56% of the vote in the November election and there has been strong unity since then in support of Cassidy.  The DSCC has recently pulled its funding from the race in the runoff, leaving Landrieu essentially on her own.

However, several factors on the ground in Louisiana mean that it is not a sure thing for Republicans.  Landrieu is one of the most pro-business Democrats in the Senate, so there is not the level of animosity from "business-oriented" Republicans that we see in other states. She has won two runoff elections in the past, so she knows how to close the deal with voters in Louisiana.  The runoff is on a Saturday, rather than a Tuesday, which makes participation easier for younger and minority voters, important pieces of Landrieu's winning coalition.  And, perhaps most importantly, her brother, Mitch Landrieu, is mayor of New Orleans, home of the largest concentration of Democratic votes in the state.  If anyone would be able to turnout votes in a low-turnout runoff, it would be the Mayor.

So, while all traditional factors in predicting an election outcome favor the Republican Cassidy, there are "on the ground" factors which keep this race very interesting. 

Finally, this is Louisiana, home of Huey Long, Edwin Edwards, Mardi Gras, Duck Dynasty, and a strong Cajun/Creole/French-Catholic tradition in which anything can happen - and often does.  

October 29, 2014
Crystal Ball, Crystal Ball, Show Me November 5       
By Bo Harmon

With the midterm election less than a week away on November 4, there is more uncertainty of what the Senate results will be than in any recent election. While every election night holds surprises (remember Eric Cantor?), next Tuesday night we may be in store for several surprises and upsets.

The races that are most competitive with a week to go are the Republican held seats in Kansas, Kentucky and Georgia and the Democrat held seats in Arkansas, Louisiana, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Iowa, Michigan, Colorado and Alaska.

So, let's rub the crystal ball and see what emerges....

A couple of assumptions: First, let's assume Republicans win South Dakota, Montana and West Virginia, giving them three pickups.  Republicans have held consistent double digit leads in all three seats for months.  Also, we can safely assume that Louisiana will go to a run off on December 6th and in that scenario is considered a toss-up. 

With KY, KS and GA in the air, but MT, SD and WV likely additions, Republicans start with a 45 seat foundation.

With MI, LA, NC, NH, CO, AR, AK, and IA in the air, Democrats start with a foundation of 44 seats.
Republicans need to get to 51 for a majority because at 50-50, Vice President Joe Biden is the tie-breaker on behalf of Democrats.

Polling averages in many of these races have been fairly consistent for the last month, indicating that the races have settled a bit.  While all are very close (within the margin of error in most cases) the stability of the leader hasn't shifted in over a month in many of these. 

Republicans have held a consistent lead in Kentucky, Arkansas, Iowa, Alaska and Colorado. 

Democrats have held steady leads in North Carolina, Michigan and New Hampshire. 

The three wild cards are Kansas, Georgia and Louisiana.  Louisiana, as we have said, is likely to go to a runoff which will be held December 6.  Increasingly, a runoff is also the most likely scenario in Georgia, but this one held January 6.  Kansas is the other real toss up and is complicated by the fact that Republican Pat Roberts isn't running against a Democrat, he's running against an Independent, Greg Orman, who hasn't said if he would caucus with Republicans or Democrats, but has hinted that he will work with whoever is in the majority. (Just to make it more fun, remember that Maine Independent Angus King has ALSO said he reserves the right to switch and caucus with Republicans if they take the majority).

If current polling trends hold steady for another week and predict who will win each state (a BIG "if"), then Republicans would hold KY and pick up CO, IA, AR and AK, Democrats would hold NH, MI and NC.   KS and GA are both tied.  That puts Republicans at 50 seats with three in the air.  In a 50-50 tie, Democrats would retain control with Vice President Biden as the tie-breaking vote when needed.  
So, understanding that there will be at least one and probably two races outstanding, and possibly two Senators who could caucus with either party, what are the various scenarios and how likely are we to see each on the morning of November 5th?

Democrats Hold the Senate:

Democrats holding the Senate is the least likely scenario.  It would mean that Republicans won no more than two of the following: MI, NH, NC, CO, AR, AK, IA and/or lost seats in Georgia or Kentucky (or Orman wins Kansas and immediately announces as a Democrat).  Given the consistent polling advantage Republican candidates enjoy a week before the election, this is an unlikely scenario.  Likelihood: 15%

Republicans Win the Senate:

For Republicans to know on November 5th that they will be in the majority in the Senate in the next Congress is more likely than Democrats knowing that THEY will be in the majority, but still not certain.  For this to happen, with Louisiana still out, would mean that Republicans won three or more of the races listed above AND swept GA, KY and KS.  With Republicans leading in polls in AR, CO, IA and AK, the first part of that equation is possible, but the second part is dicier.  A possible scenario is Roberts wins Kansas, GA and LA go to runoffs.  In this case, Republicans would have 51 and be in the majority regardless of the outcome of Georgia or Louisiana runoffs. Likelihood: 40%

Majority Control is Unclear:

An equally likely scenario is that we still won't know who will control the Senate on the morning after the election.  If current polling holds through Election Day, Republicans would hold KY and pick up CO, IA, AR and AK, Democrats would hold NH, MI and NC.   KS and GA are both tied and LA is already headed to a runoff.  That puts Republicans at 50 seats and Democrats would retain control with Vice President Biden as the tie-breaking vote when needed.  Likelihood: 45%

The permutations of which party Orman (and King) would caucus with, the results of runoffs, if any state switches from one side to the other in current polling (remember that ALL of these races are still within the margin of error) then we are in for an unpredictable Election Night where anything is possible the next morning. 

October 22, 2014
Less Than Two Weeks To Go and ANYTHING Could Happen      
By Bo Harmon

There are 10 U.S. Senate races that are toss-ups with the candidates within five points of each other and no candidate polling over 50%.

  • Approval ratings for both parties are at historic lows.
  • Confidence in Congress to solve even minor problems is at a historic low.
  • There has been more money spent on midterm elections than ever before.  By a lot.
  • Voter enthusiasm and engagement is significantly lower than 2006 or 2010 midterms.

That is a recipe for unpredictability.

There are two really remarkable things about this mid-term Senate election.  The first is the sheer number of highly competitive Senate races.  The second is just how close so many of them remain with less than two weeks before Election Day.

In recent weeks, polling has tightened in two races that had been considered likely to go Republican - South Dakota and Georgia.  Other races that had already been considered competitive are seeming even more so in the closing weeks. 

In a typical election cycle, there are four or five Senate races that are considered highly competitive.  This year, there are 10.  Two held by Republicans and eight held by Democrats.  Two additional Democratic held seats in Montana and West Virginia are likely to switch to Republican control.  If that happens, Republicans would need to net four additional seats to take control of the Senate. 

If Republicans lose either Georgia or Kansas, currently held by Republicans, it makes it very difficult for them to win a majority in the Senate.  The seats that have long been considered competitive, currently held by Democrats, all remain so.  Arkansas, Alaska, Louisiana, North Carolina and South Dakota are states all carried by Mitt Romney in 2012 with Democratic incumbents and have been top Republican targets for over a year.  Other Democratic held seats that could go either way include Iowa, Colorado and New Hampshire. 

Polling averages in ALL of these races have less than a five point difference between the top candidates and none have a candidate breaking 50%.  With less than two weeks to go, that is truly unprecedented. 

In a political environment where both parties' approval ratings and public confidence in the ability of Congress to solve even minor problems has dwindled to record low levels, there is such broad dissatisfaction with Washington and politics, it makes for a very volatile electorate.  Polling results are increasingly unreliable and even more so in an unpredictable, low turnout, mid-term election.  The result is less clarity about what may happen on Election Day than at any time in recent history.

We have seen some unexpected results already, most notably the surprise loss of House Majority Leader Eric Cantor in his primary.  More such surprises are likely in store for November 4.


October 8, 2014
Senate Outlook - One Month Out     
By Briana Huxley

We are now 27 days out from the election and into the final stretch.  Below is BIPAC's Senate Rankings for 2014, and today's EIS will focus on the current trajectory of the competitive races, including the Lean Republican, Toss Up and Lean Democrat.

U.S. Senate


Typically races move on or off the competitive playing field as the election cycle progresses, but this cycle has remained remarkably steady with the races that were thought to be competitive a year out, still being the ones that are competitive less than a month out and with very few new races creeping into the competitive category.  All of the races outlined below are still considered highly competitive, but some are beginning to drift one way or another and are designated as "lean" towards one party or the other.

Lean Republican

AR: Sen. Mark Pryor (D) has been on the list of most vulnerable Democrats for a while now, and not much is changing.  Pryor is relatively well liked and his family has been involved in Arkansas politics for years, but Arkansas is a solidly red state now at the federal level.  Romney won by 24 points in 2012 and Pyror is the only Democrat left in the federal delegation.  Most polls have Rep.  Tom Cotton (R) leading the race by an average of four points, with Pryor stuck around 40% - bad numbers for an incumbent.

GA: Democrats fielded an impressive candidate in Michelle Nunn (D), who has given Republicans a competitive race in Georgia.  However, now that the Republican primary is over and David Perdue (R) has coalesced the Republican base, he is starting to pull away in the polls and currently leads by about three points.  While Perdue is leading, both candidates are still under 50%, and if neither get a majority of the vote, this race will go into a runoff on January 6th.  Runoffs tend to favor Republicans, especially in a midterm election year, and depending how the other races flesh out on Election Day, this could be the race that decides the control of the Senate.

KY: Secretary of State Alison Lundergan Grimes (D) has been an impressive candidate, but Sen. Mitch McConnell (R) has double downed and with Pres. Obama's dismal approval ratings in this coal state, the race is looking less and less competitive as we head into October.  Currently, McConnell leads on average by about five points, with his lead widening in the past few weeks.  This is still a competitive race, but McConnell has the advantage in the home stretch.

LA: Sen. Mary Landrieu (D) continues to be one of the most vulnerable incumbents of the cycle.  With no candidate in this race polling above 50%, it is likely the race will be decided in a runoff on December 6th.  If Democrats hold the Senate, Landrieu will become Chair of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee, which Democrats hoped would give her an edge in this race.  Cassidy however has run a good campaign and President Obama's approval rating in Louisiana is underwater.  Control of the Senate may come down to the LA runoff, and in the runoff polling, Cassidy leads by about six points.   

Toss Up

AK: Sen. Mark Begich (D) is faring better than some of his colleagues this cycle, but still faces an extremely competitive race against former Natural Resources Commissioner Dan Sullivan.  Polling in Alaska has been all over the place the past few months, with Begich and Sullivan both leading at one point or another.  With a very late Republican primary over, Sullivan has begun his general election campaigning in full and is leading the polls by 3-6 points.  However, polling in Alaska is notoriously difficult. This could go either way at this point.

CO: This is a tossup race that no one had on their radar a year ago, with Rep. Gory Gardner (R) entering the race in March.  Since Gardner entered, polls have shown him statistically tied with Sen. Mark Udall (D) and that has continued throughout the summer and into the final stretch.  Pres. Obama won Colorado in 2012 by five points, but his approval ratings continue to drop, hurting Udall's chances.  Gov. Hickenlooper (D) also faces a competitive election this cycle, which could further hurt Udall's reelection campaign. Expect this race to stay a tossup until the election.

IA: Since Joni Ernst (R) won the GOP nomination in June, this race has been a tossup.  Democratic nominee Rep. Bruce Braley (D) has had trouble connecting with voters and like most other Democrats running this cycle, has had to distance himself from Pres. Obama's negative approval numbers in the state.   He also does not have the advantage of incumbency, like several of the other Democratic candidates this cycle.  Ernst has run a strong campaign and Republicans are hopeful that having popular Gov. Branstad (R) on the ticket as well will help her chances. Ernst currently leads Braley by an average of two points - still within the margin of error.

KS: Kansas has become the wild card race this election cycle.  Sen. Pat Roberts (R) faces a surprisingly competitive general election after being damaged in the primary.  The Democratic nominee, Chad Taylor, had little name ID or funds for the general election.  He has been removed from the ballot, presenting a clear path for a challenge to Roberts by Independent candidate Greg Orman.  Orman has affiliated with each party over the years and describes himself as a fiscal conservative and social moderate.  He has not indicated which party he would caucus with if elected.  On average, Orman is leading Roberts in the polls by five points though Roberts and outside groups have just begun attacking Orman who had been running months of positive ads, so the race is expected to tighten as the attacks sink in with voters. Further complicating Roberts' reelection chances is Gov. Sam Brownback (R), who is also up for re-election this cycle and is losing support from the more moderate wing of the Republican Party in Kansas.  This Senate race is currently a tossup and Roberts has become the most vulnerable Republican Senator this cycle.

Lean Democrat

MI: For the past few months, Rep. Gary Peters (D) has been leading in the polls against former Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land (R).  Michigan went for Pres. Obama in 2012 and is the only state Pres. Obama is visiting with a Senate race this fall, showing his national brand is not as damaged in Michigan as it is in other Senate states.  Peters is up by an average of seven points and this seat is leaning in his favor.

NH: Carpet bagging attacks against former MA Senator Scott Brown (R) don't appear to be sticking and this race is getting closer and closer as we approach November. Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D) had a double digit lead in the summer, but now only leads by an average of five points.  While NH is currently in the lean D column, it could soon be moved to toss up, if the poll numbers continue to tighten.  Shaheen is well liked in the state, but Pres. Obama is underwater in NH and Brown is campaigning heavily on foreign policy, nationalizing the race.  New Hampshire, more than any other state, has a tendency to sway with the political winds, going heavily Democratic in strong Democratic years and strongly Republican in good GOP years.  If anyone could survive those powerful electoral winds, it would be Shaheen but the state's electoral tendencies run deep with the voters here.

NC: Once of the more vulnerable Senators running for re-election, Kay Hagan (D) has started to pull away from state House Speaker Thom Tillis (R) in the polls, and if this trend continues, will be favored for re-election.  Tillis, coming from an unpopular legislative session, has been dropping in the polls, and his favorability ratings are less than Hagan, with only 36% of voters having a favorable view, compared to Hagan's 42%.  The North Carolina race has turned into a lesser of two evils race, with Hagan currently in the lead. 


October 1, 2014
House Races You May Not Be Watching, But Should      
By Bo Harmon

While Republicans are expected to expand their majority in the House due to a significantly higher number of Democrats facing competitive races and the Republican lean of the election cycle, there are always a few surprises on election night.  Below are a few of the races that haven't topped most political radars, but are proving to be some of the most interesting contests in the country.


Rep. Mike Michaud's (D) open seat features one of the most interesting political dynamics in the country.  Maine has a history of centrist consensus builders like Rep. Mike Michaud, former Sen. Olympia Snowe (R), Sen. Angus King (I), Sen. Susan Collins (R) and former Sen. Bill Cohen (R).  The Democrat nominee, 35 year old State Senator Emily Cain, seems cut from a similar cloth and has a reputation of open-door, consensus building in the state legislature admired even by her political opponents. Bruce Poliquin, who beat an Olympia Snowe protégé in the primary with a tea-party oriented message on taxes and spending, is the Republican nominee. The district tilts slightly Democratic but as an open seat, it is very much a toss-up. 


Democrat incumbent John Garamendi is facing Republican State Senator Dan Logue. Garamendi won in 2012 with less than 55% of the vote and Logue's Assembly district is almost wholly within the Congressional district.  While it is a Democrat leaning seat, with an off-year electorate, an incumbent who is to the left of the voters and a reform oriented Republican with a record of bi-partisanship, CA-3 is a ripe opportunity for a surprise on election night.


Dynamics on the ground however are making this one of the most interesting races in the country to watch.  Democrat Speaker of the House Pat Murphy is up against first time candidate Republican Rod Blum. An early September poll showed a two point race - closer than the open 3rd district seat which had been considered to be much more competitive.  Blum has surprised many with his adept campaign ability and slow and steady work to win over voters.  With Murphy so far to the left of the district and a popular Governor Branstad (R) driving turnout at the top of the ticket, Iowa's first district could be at the top of the list of races with a surprising result.


Republican French Hill and Democrat North Little Rock Mayor Patrick Henry Hays will compete in the race to fill the open seat of Rep. Tim Griffin (R). On the surface, it seemed a safe bet to hold the seat for Republicans, but it has become one of the sleeper races the Democrats hope to pick off.  It is Arkansas' most Democratic district and voted for Obama by 8 points more than any other Congressional District in the state.  Senator Mark Pryor will be pushing a big Democratic turnout in Hays' Little Rock backyard if he is going to have a chance at reelection and Hays has focused like a laser on job creation, running some of the most effective TV ads of the cycle.   Observers in the state still give an edge to Hill, but Hays has proven to be a much more formidable candidate than anticipated and Hill's patrician demeanor in the most Democratic leaning district in the state COULD result in a surprise Democratic pickup in the deep south.


You would think a Republican in a district carried by Barack Obama who was caught on camera threatening to kill a news reporter and being under FBI indictment would pretty much end his chances at reelection.  If so, you aren't familiar with the political dynamics on Staten Island and Rep. Michael Grimm.  Staten Island has always felt itself different and separate from New York, even voting to secede as recently as 1993.  They are the picked on little brother who gets little but scorn from the rest of the cosmopolitan world capital. Michael Grimm is one of them. On a visceral level, he understands and relates to them - and vice versa.  The district also has a couple of precincts in Brooklyn, which may as well be in Connecticut for the impact they have on the thinking of the district.  It is from one of these precincts that Democrat Councilman Domenic Recchia hails.  Staten Island has the highest percentage of Italian ancestry in the country according to the Almanac of American Politics. Grimm and Recchia both have Italian heritage, but Grimm's Staten Island roots and New York Mayor Bill de Blasio's (D) unpopularity in the district may show that Grimm, despite the politics of the district, despite federal indictments, despite threats to reporters, has a real chance to hold his seat.  If he does, it will be one of the most remarkable results of the election.

September 10, 2014
Primary Recap
By Briana Huxley


NH: Former MA Senator Scott Brown won the Republican nomination with 50% of the vote.  He is challenging Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D) in November.


MA-06: Rep. John Tierney was defeated by Iraq War veteran and political newcomer Seth Moulton in Tuesday's primary. Moulton received 51% of the vote, Tierney, 40%.  Scandal plagued Tierney, who faced his most competitive primary yet. He barely won his 2012 re-election, winning by one point when President Obama carried the district by 11.  Moulton now faces 2012 Republican nominee former state Sen. Richard Tisei (R).

NH-01: Former Mayor of Manchester and Rep. Frank Guinta won the Republican primary with 49% of the vote, with former UNH Business School Dean Dan Innis receiving 41%.  Guinta previously won the seat in 2010 and was defeated in 2012 by Rep. Carol Shea-Porter (D).  They will face off again in November, in what is expected to be another competitive year for the district.

NH-02: State Rep. Marilinda Garcia won the Republican nomination with 50% of the vote.  Garcia, who gained the support of the more conservative wing of the party, defeated former state Senator Gary Lambert. Republicans are excited about Garcia, a 31 year old Hispanic woman, who has gained support across the Republican spectrum.  Rep. Ann Kuster (D) has the advantage in this race, but it is not one to count out as competitive.

August 27, 2014
What Issues May Impact the 2014 Elections?
By Bo Harmon

With only four state primaries remaining and Labor Day as the traditional kick off of general election season, let’s examine some of the issues that may impact the 2014 elections.

To date, most of the advertising from Republicans has centered on the negative impacts of health care reform while Democratic ads have largely accused Republicans of a "War on Women," generally focused on abortion rights and contraceptive access.  While these issues will continue to be themes for both parties, there are a number of other factors that are likely to impact voters as well.

The most powerful of these issues going into November is the great disdain that Americans feel towards Congress and Washington.  Not only are approval ratings for Congress at historic lows, but Americans' confidence in their government's ability to solve even small problems has shrunk to nothing.  The party that is able to show voters a way out of the morass is likely to come out on top. 

This summer has seen the development of several international crises that have brought foreign policy into the election discussion.  As American prisoners are beheaded in the desert, passenger planes are being shot out of the sky in the midst of conflict between two countries and the Israel-Gaza conflict wages on, Americans feel increasingly uneasy with our place in the world.  A border crisis with thousands of unaccompanied children coming to the United States brings that anxiety closer to home.  Combined with the lack of confidence in Washington to solve ANY problem, those tensions and fears can certainly end up impacting votes if one party or the other finds a compelling way to talk about them.

Back at home - immigration and health care policy are still making waves.  With the ongoing border crisis, discussion on immigration reform is here to stay.  With rhetoric on the issue touching on everything from racism to national security to economic prosperity, emotions around the issue are very raw.  If President Obama changes deportation regulations and his critics can paint it as the President giving amnesty to millions of illegal immigrants, the electoral implications for 2014 and beyond could be enormous.  In October, many insurance providers are expected to announce new rates for health care policies purchased on the state and federal exchanges. If they include significantly higher premiums, it could have an enormous impact on the results in November.  If they are minimal, it makes it appear that the new system is working as intended and could help soften the fallout for Democrats.

The issue that gets lip service from candidates on both sides of the aisle is the issue that consistently ranks higher on polls than any other voter concern: jobs and the economy.  For an economy that has been in "recovery" for almost six years, workforce participation is low, wages have been stagnant or lower than before the recession and economic confidence remains a very real concern.  Candidates who are able to express an understanding of these anxieties and outline a path to improvement are likely to find themselves rewarded.

As confidence in Washington to do ANYTHING is at its lowest point ever, very real anxieties exist in areas of domestic economic conditions and international conflicts that raise questions about our foreign policy.  With these huge free-floating anxieties hanging over the electorate as well as potentially big changes on hot button issues like immigration and health care premiums, the issues that drive votes in November have the potential to be significantly different than those we see in political TV ads today.

August 20, 2014
Alaska Primary Results

Former Natural Resources Commissioner and Attorney General Dan Sullivan has won the Republican nomination in the Alaska Senate race with 40% of the vote.   Sullivan beat Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell and former Senate nominee/Tea Party candidate Joe Miller in Tuesday's primary.  Sullivan faces vulnerable Sen. Mark Begich (D) in the general and with Sullivan as the nominee, the GOP is optimistic of their chances to flip Alaska. 

Top 10 Most Competitive Senate Races         
By Bo Harmon

With primary season almost complete and political campaigns nearing the final sprint to Election Day, it is a good time to review which races are most competitive heading into Labor Day.  In the Senate, Republicans need to pick up six seats to win a majority and control both houses of Congress.  The last three years of a divided Congress (Republicans controlling the House, Democrats controlling the Senate) has led to gridlock in Washington.  Congress can't even muster the political fortitude or agreement to name Post Offices and bridges anymore, much less pass things like an annual budget or appropriations.  The result is the lowest approval ratings of Congress in history.  Dissatisfaction with Washington is at depths never measured since polling began tracking such things. 

Three seats currently held by Democrats are highly likely to switch to Republican control.  Montana, West Virginia and South Dakota are all Democratic held seats in very heavily Republican states with well-funded and well-liked Republicans.  So, with three seats "in the bag" for Republicans, they need three more to win control of the Senate.  The most competitive seats where they will try to do that are:



Incumbent Democrat Mary Landrieu is running against Republican Congressman Bill Cassidy and a handful of other candidates.  Louisiana voted for Romney by 18 points and holds an open primary on Election Day with all candidates on the ballot regardless of party.  If no candidate receives 50%, a runoff election is held in December between the top two finishers, again, regardless of party.  Polls show Cassidy and Landrieu neck and neck, but both under 50%, meaning the two will likely face off in a December 5 runoff.  In a run-off scenario, Landrieu would face an uphill struggle to turn out base Democratic voters in a non-traditional election time.  Landrieu's family's political legacy and her ability to bring independent and some Republican crossover votes make this an enormously competitive race.


Democratic incumbent Senator Kay Hagan is facing Republican state house Speaker Thom Tillis in what has been the most expensive election to date.  Outside groups have already spent over $15 million on this race with pledges of much more to come.  This attests to the very close split in the campaign.  The massive number of attack ads already aired has had the effect of diminishing both candidates severely and many North Carolina voters already view the election as a choice for the lesser of two evils as each candidate is highly unpopular and there is a much larger number of undecided voters than would be expected at this point in an election.  Polling has the race neck and neck with each candidate in the low 40s.


Democratic incumbent Senator Mark Pryor faces a tough re-election bid in 2014.  He is being challenged by freshman Rep. Tom Cotton.  While Pryor is relatively well-liked in Arkansas, President Obama's approval numbers in the state are dismal.  The state is trending red and went to 2012 GOP presidential candidate Mitt Romney by over 20 points but has a solid history of electing Democrats to the Senate and Governorship.  Both candidates are showing impressive fundraising numbers and polling on average has Cotton up three points.  However, taking on an incumbent is hard, especially for a newcomer like Cotton against Pryor whose family has generations of elected service in the state. 


The fourth Democratic incumbent running in a state carried by Mitt Romney is Mark Begich, who won the seat following the indictment and scandal surrounding longtime Senator Ted Stevens (R).  Begich is the former Mayor of Anchorage whose father was a leading political figure in the state until his death in a plane crash in the 70’s.  Begich is the first Democrat to win federal office in Alaska in over 30 years.  He faces former Department of Natural Resources Commissioner Dan Sullivan who won the GOP primary against Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell and Tea Party activist Joe Miller.  Polling has the race neck and neck.


Democratic Senator Mark Udall appeared to be safe in his re-election bid until Rep. Cory Gardner jumped in the race in February.  Once Gardner entered, polling soon showed the two candidates statistically tied.  Colorado went to President Obama (D) in 2012 by six points.  As is the trend nationally, Obama's approval ratings have dropped significantly in Colorado, hurting Udall's election chances for 2014.   Gardner got a boost when Bob Beauprez won the GOP nomination for Governor making that a competitive seat as well, rather than the highly controversial Tom Tancredo which would have forced a large amount of ticket splitting for Gardner to win.  Udall was helped when the anti-fracking ballot initiatives were shelved recently.  The ballot issues caused a huge rift between the business community and environmentalists, both of whom Udall needs to be successful and having them off the ballot means he will not have the difficult balancing act he had before.  This race is generally seen as the barometer of whether Republicans will sweep a large number of seats or not.  If Colorado goes Republican, it is probably an indication of a larger Republican wave.  If it remains Democrat, it likely means the Democrats have held off the worst of the GOP attacks.


Senator Tom Harkin (D) is retiring, leaving an open seat for 2014.  The Democrats quickly rallied around Congressman Bruce Braley, while the Republicans had several candidates compete for the nomination.   State Sen. Joni Ernst overwhelmingly won the GOP primary, despite the crowded field and that created momentum that has carried her into one of the most competitive races in the country.   Ernst has proven to be an impressive candidate and is running one of the most disciplined campaigns in the field this year.  Even in the primary, she consolidated Tea Party supporters with more traditional GOP support and that broad appeal has served her well.  Braley is a standard issue Democrat and even though Iowa has tilted Democratic at the Presidential level the last few years, Braley has made a number of unforced errors including disparaging comments about farmers and senior Senator Charles Grassley who is highly popular in the state.  Also helping Ernst's prospects is the highly popular Governor Terry Branstad running for re-election who has made high turnout amongst Republicans a priority.  Branstad is close to Ernst and is putting the full force of his political organization to work to support her election.  Polling at this point shows a dead even race.



Republican Leader Mitch McConnell faces a competitive race from Secretary of State Alison Lundergan Grimes.  McConnell also had a primary challenger, but McConnell's superior fundraising and organizational capacity left him little to worry about.  The real competitive race is the general, and this is one of the Democrat's two opportunities to pick up a seat in 2014.  Current polling has the race very close despite the outsized Republican performance in Kentucky at the Presidential level.  McConnell is known for his fundraising and campaign prowess, but Grimes is holding her own and even recently outraised the Senator. Grimes, 35, has a political pedigree in the state and has proven her ability to win statewide in the Republican-heavy state as she currently serves as Secretary of State.  The position, as in most states, is administrative and she hasn't had to take any difficult votes and is attempting to position herself outside of the Obama administration, which is highly unpopular in the state, especially in the coal producing areas.  McConnell, meanwhile, is the embodiment of "Republicans in Washington" as the Senate GOP leader, and has served as Senator for almost 30 years in a year when members of Congress generically are literally held in lower esteem than Darth Vader.

Republican business executive David Perdue, former CEO of Reebok and Dollar General Stores, won a crowded and hard fought GOP primary and will take on Democrat Michelle Nunn in this open seat being vacated by Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss.  While Georgia hasn't voted for a Democrat for Governor or Senator in over a decade and the state went solidly for Romney in 2012, Democrats are hoping Nunn can draw on the goodwill towards her father, former Senator Sam Nunn who is still very highly regarded in the state, as well as the fact that she has no voting record to pick apart.  She will attempt to paint Perdue as a Romney-like corporate raider but in a Republican leaning state in a Republican leaning year, the odds are with Perdue.  Ironically, Perdue can demonstrate his independence from the corporate world thanks to a high profile spat with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce during the primary.



This open seat features Democrat Congressman Gary Peters against Republican former Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land.  The state went for Obama by 10 points in 2012 but has a Republican Governor, Republican Legislature and a majority of its Congressional seats are Republican.  When Land was elected Secretary of State, it was with the highest percentage of the vote of any Republican running statewide in recent history.  She also has the ability to partly self-fund the campaign and has already put in over $2 million of her own money.  Union groups in the state, especially autoworkers, are furious with Governor Rick Snyder for passing Right to Work legislation last year and have vowed an all-out voter mobilization and turnout effort that would benefit Peters should it materialize.  While every state tends to see non-Presidential year electorates that are slightly older and less minority than Presidential year turnouts, this is especially pronounced in Michigan for some reason, giving Republicans an almost even playing field in off-year elections as opposed to Presidential year turnout.  Peters has still been able to maintain some lead in the polls and the Democratic tilt of the state make it an uphill climb for Land though it is a race both parties are heavily invested in.


Republican business executive Mike McFadden is taking on Democrat incumbent Al Franken.  Franken has been a reliably Democratic vote, sometimes at the expense of home state interests but has proven himself to be a serious policy maker who gets the job done for his constituents.  McFadden is an attractive candidate with the ability to raise substantial financial resources.  Franken won in 2008 by less than 1000 votes however, polls to date show him with a consistent lead but still with less than 50% of the vote, and Obama with a surprisingly weak approval rating in the state.

August 13, 2014
Primary Recap: TN, HI, CT, MN & WI          
By Briana Huxley



Sen. Lamar Alexander (R) beat back a challenge from Tea Party candidate state Rep. Joe Carr last Thursday, 50% to 41%.  There were several other Republicans in the race as well, though none garnered more than 5% of the vote each.   Tennessee was the last chance for Tea Party groups to take out an incumbent Senator this cycle, after failing to take down McConnell in Kentucky, Cochran in Mississippi, Graham in South Carolina and Roberts in Kansas.  While Carr was a more credible and less controversial candidate than others, such as Milton Wolf, Alexander took his primary challenges seriously and started rallying his base early in the campaign, leaving little money or support left for Carr. While the Tea Party has had some success in 2014, it is clear that taking on incumbents is still an uphill battle.  Senator Alexander is safe in the general.


TN-03:  Rep. Chuck Fleischmann (R) narrowly beat his primary challenger, Weston Wamp, 51% to 49%.  Wamp positioned himself as a moderate candidate, trying to win the seat that his dad, Zach Wamp, once held.  This primary was not the traditional tea-party/establishment race we have seen this cycle, but it was very close and another example of how hard it is to beat an incumbent, even with a good candidate in a district that isn't ideal for the incumbent.  Fleischmann has never won a majority in the primary but this was the first time there weren't multiple candidates to split the remaining vote.

TN-04:  One Tea Party oriented candidate could find success in Tennessee, Rep. Scott DesJarlais.  DesJarlais faced an extremely competitive challenge from state Sen. Jim Tracy, who had the backing of the Tennessee business community, Republican establishment and outraised and outspent DesJarlais.  Much of DesJarlais' trouble came from the scandals that plagued him in 2012, however, two years is a long time for voters.  Many appeared to have forgiven DesJarlais for his digressions, and were more focused on his conservative policies in the House and his recent disclosure that he has cancer, both helping his re-election bid.  DesJarlais is currently ahead by 35 votes, but the race is still under consideration and has not been finalized by the Secretary of State. Some absentee and provisional ballots may remain and Tracy can call for a recount.



The most competitive Democratic Senate primary to take place this cycle is still too close to call.  After Saturday's election, Sen. Brian Schatz currently leads Rep. Colleen Hanabusa by 1,635 votes.   The special election is for the final two years of the late Sen. Daniel Inouye (D), who passed away in December, 2012.  Inouye had requested that Gov. Neil Abercrombie (D) appoint Rep. Hanabusa to serve the remainder of his term after he passed, but Abercrombie instead named his lieutenant governor, Brian Schatz, setting up the beginnings of the primary challenge.  While the Republicans' intraparty fight is playing out in Senate races across the country, the Hawaii race is a microcosm of what is going on within the Democratic Party.  It pits Schatz, a young, very liberal Democratic against Hanabusa, a more moderate liberal and senior candidate.  Schatz has gained the support of the Democratic establishment, liberal groups and President Obama while Hanabusa has gained the endorsement of Emily's List.   Two precincts have not held their elections yet due to Tropical Storm Iselle, and will hold their elections on Friday.  Those results could have an impact on the primary.  The eventual winner of the primary faces businessman and former state Rep. Cam Cavasso (R), but the seat is likely to stay in Democratic hands. 


HI-01:State Rep. Mark Takai easily won the crowded Democratic primary to succeed Rep. Hanabusa, with 45% of the vote.  Former Rep. Charles Djou won the Republican nomination.  The district leans Democratic but with a competitive Governor's race and a talented candidate on the GOP side in Djou who has held the seat before, this race could be competitive.


There were no competitive primaries in Connecticut.



Businessman Mike McFadden (R) won the GOP primary to take on Sen. Al Franken (D), with 72% of the vote.  McFadden was the GOP endorsed candidate going into the primary and was favored to win.  Franken, who won in 2008 by only 312 votes, was expected to be one of the Republicans' top targets in 2014.  Franken however, has done a good job of winning over his critics and is currently favored to win re-election though Obama has surprisingly low approval ratings in the state and McFadden has the ability to spend substantially on the race through personal funds and has demonstrated a strong ability to raise money.  Franken has already spent almost $15 million, more than any other candidate to date, and remains under 50% in polling, a dangerous place for incumbents.  Republicans believe Minnesota is the state most likely among the "second tier" states of VA, NH, OR and NM to jump to the highly competitive category as we approach November.


MN-06:Former State Rep. Tom Emmer (R) won the Republican primary with 72% of the vote to succeed retiring Rep. Michele Bachmann (R).  Emmer already won the GOP party's endorsement at the August convention and was expected to win the primary over Anoka County Commissioner Rhonda Sivarajah.  Emmer was able to bring together a wide base of support.  He faces Sartell mayor Joe Perske, but this is a very Republican seat and Emmer should be safe.

MN-08: The key players in this competitive race have been set for a while, with Rep. Rick Nolan (D) being challenged by Mills Fleet Farm Vice President Stewart Mills, III (R).  This northern, rural, iron range district has been getting more and more competitive over the years, and Mills has proved himself a credible candidate.  Mills has a unique appeal and polling shows this is a tight race.

MN-07: Rep. Collin Peterson (D) is being challenged by state Sen. Torrey Westrom (R), in what is expected to be a competitive race.   Peterson is one of the few remaining farmers in Congress and is ranking member on the Agriculture committee having demonstrated a strong tendency to work across the aisle to find consensus on issues.  With Peterson and Westrom being on the same side of many policy issues, Westrom's campaign is focusing on the need for change, and linking Peterson to the Obama administration.  Right now, Peterson has a small advantage, but this is a race to pay attention to.



WI-06: State Sen. Glenn Grothman won the GOP nomination to succeed retiring Rep. Tom Petri (R).  Grothman received 39% of the vote, while state Sen. Joe Leibham got 29% and state Rep. Duey Stroebel received 29%.  Grothman was running to the right of the GOP candidates in the group, while Stroebel labeled himself as an outsider and was able to self-fund.  The Democratic nominee is Winnebago county executive Mark Harris, though Grothman has the advantage in this Republican district.

August 6, 2014
Kansas, Michigan, Missouri & Washington Primary Recaps 
By Briana Huxley



Senator Pat Roberts (R) will be back in the Senate for a fourth term after defeating his primary challenger radiologist Milton Wolf.   Wolf had a campaign plagued with scandal, after he posted x-rays of his patients on Facebook.  Roberts, however, had his own campaign issues to deal with, more specifically the criticism that he lives in Virginia.  He owns a home in Kansas, but leases it out.  Roberts is safe in the general election.


KS-1: Rep. Tim Huelskamp (R) easily beat back a primary challenge from Alan LaPolice, a former school superintendent.  Huelskamp, a Tea Party favorite, took heat from the agriculture and ethanol industries in Kansas for his recent policy standings.  Huelskamp is favored in the general.

KS-4: Rep. Mike Pompeo (R) beat back a challenge from former Congressman Todd Tiahart.  Pompeo had a cash advantage and was leading in the polls up to the election.  Tiahart, who had endorsed Pompeo in his previous Congressional races, was running to Pompeo's left in the election, a rare occurrence in GOP primaries.  This is a safe Republican seat and Pompeo is expected to easily win the general.



Rep. Gary Peters (D) and former Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land (R) faced no primary opposition in their Senate bids to succeed retiring Senator Carl Levin (D).  As such, they have been campaigning for the general election for weeks now.  Michigan went to President Obama in 2008 and 2012, and Peters has been leading in the polls, however Land has proved to be a serious candidate and this will be an extremely competitive race.


MI-1: Congressman Dan Benishek (R) had a primary challenger, but the competitive race in this district is the general.  Benishek handily defeated Tea Party candidate Alan Arcand on Tuesday.  He now faces Jerry Cannon (D), a former county sheriff and retired Army Major General, in what could shape up to be a race to watch.

MI-3: Rep. Justin Amash (R) staved off a primary challenge from businessman Brian Ellis.  Amash is safe in the general.

MI-4: State Sen. John Moolenaar won the GOP nomination to succeed Rep. Dave Camp (R).  Moolenaar was endorsed by both Rep. Camp and Tea Party groups. Paul Mitchell self-funded his campaign.  The race was tight up to Election Day, with the candidates close in the polls.  This is a safe Republican seat and Moolenaar will be the next Congressman.

MI-8: Former State Senate Majority Leader Mike Bishop (R) and Ingham County Treasurer Eric Schertzing will be vying to succeed retiring Rep. Mike Rogers (R) in the general election.  Bishop was backed by Rep. Rogers and is favored in the general election, but this is still a race to watch.  

MI-11: Rep. Kerry Bentivolio (R) becomes the next incumbent to fall in the primary season.  He had a competitive primary on his hands this year, after being dubbed an accidental candidate in 2012, when Rep. Thaddeus McCotter (R) failed to qualify for the ballot.  This year, BIPAC Action Fund endorsed candidate attorney Dave Trott challenged Bentivolio and as expected, beat the Congressman. Trott will face Bobby McKenzie in the general election.  Trott starts with the advantage.  

MI-12: Debbie Dingell (D) has been the heir apparent to the open seat of her husband, Rep. John Dingell (D), for some time, and it is now official. Dingell is a Democratic strategist, former GM executive and chairwoman of the Wayne State University board of governors.  She faces nominal opposition in November.

MI-14: Four Democrats ran in this race to succeed retiring Rep. Gary Peters (D) with Southfield Mayor Brenda Lawrence winning the nomination.  This is a solid Democratic district and Lawrence will be the next Congressman. 


There were no competitive primaries in Missouri, and will no competitive general election races.



WA 4: Rep. Doc Hastings (R) is retiring, giving another Republican a chance to hold this seat. Eight Republicans ran for the seat, along with two Democrats and two independents. Washington is one of the few states that does all mail ballots for elections, and the top two vote getters, regardless of party, advance to the general election.  Two Republicans, former state Agriculture Commissioner Dan Newhouse and Clint Didier, a former NFL player advanced to the general.  Newhouse was the frontrunner going into the primary, as well as the establishment choice, and will continue to have the edge for November.

WA-1: Tea Party oriented Robert Sutherland edged Microsoft Executive Pedro Celis (R) to challenge Rep. Suzan DelBene (D) in November. Celis was one of four Republican candidates vying for the nomination and was considered the best shot for Republicans to make this race competitive.  DelBene is favored to return to Congress.

June 26, 2014
Primary & Runoff Recap - CO, MD, NY, OK & UT    
By Briana Huxley
Mississippi - Runoff
Sen. Thad Cochran (R) narrowly defeated tea-party challenger, state Sen. Chris McDaniel.  The race has been at the center of the Republican establishment vs. Tea Party fight, costing more than $17 million dollars. Senator Cochran will face former Democratic Congressman Travis Childers in the general election.  

Sen. Mark Udall (D) has a tough race on his hands in 2014.  Rep. Cory Gardner (R) entered the race late and polls show this race to be a tossup.  Both Udall and Gardner had wrapped up their nominations but yesterday's primary vote confirmed the nominees.
CO-4:  With Rep. Cory Gardner (R) running for Senate, the 4th district is an open seat.  This is a solidly Republican seat, so the determinative race was the GOP primary.  Weld County District Attorney Ken Buck, the frontrunner, won with 44% of the vote.  Buck was originally running for Senate, but dropped down to the 4th district once Gardner announced. 
CO-5: Doug Lamborn, challenged by frequent foe and rival Bentley Rayburn, faced a much closer than expected vote count and escaped with a narrow 53-47 victory in the GOP primary.
CO-6: Rep. Mike Coffman (R) is being challenged by former House Speaker Andrew Romanoff (D).  Neither had a primary challenge and both have been gearing up for the general election on November 4th. Coffman is one of the most vulnerable House Republicans this cycle, and this is expected to be one of the most expensive House races in 2014. 
New York
NY-1:  Rep. Tim Bishop (D) will have a tough general election on his hands.  State Sen. Lee Zeldin won the GOP nomination with 62% of the vote.  Bishop won in 2012 by just four points and this is a top Republican pick up target.  In a better Republican year, and with Bishop now under FBI investigation for influence peddling, Zeldin represents one of the best GOP pickup opportunities in the country.  
NY-4: Rep. Carolyn McCarthy (D) is retiring, leaving an open seat in 2014.  Nassau County District Attorney Kathleen Rice quickly became the frontrunner in the Democratic primary and general election though the primary proved much closer than anticipated.  She became the official nominee yesterday winning 53% of the primary vote.  On the Republican side, attorney and former Nassau County legislator Bruce Blakeman won the nomination.  Rice remains the front runner for the general election.
NY-11: Rep. Michael Grimm (R) and NYC Councilman Domenic Recchia (D) will face off in what is likely to be a very competitive election in November.  Grimm was recently indicted on 20 counts of fraud, but maintains his innocence and is still running for re-election.  Recchia, a NYC councilman, is a credible challenger and right now, Grimm is the underdog. 
NY-13: Rep. Charles Rangel was one of the most vulnerable Democrats in a primary this election cycle, but was able to hold off a challenge from state Sen. Adriano Espaillat.  Rangel did not have an easy primary, due to his past censure by the House for failing to pay taxes and facing a Hispanic challenger in an increasingly Hispanic district.  Rangel is safe in the general election.  
NY-18: The 18th district will see a rematch with former Rep. Nan Hayworth (R) challenging Rep. Sean Patrick Maloney (D), who ousted the freshman in 2012.  This district has switched parties in three of the past four elections and is known for its moderate representatives. 
NY-19: Rep. Chris Gibson (R) will be facing venture capitalist Sean Eldridge (D) in November.  Gibson sits in a Democratic leaning district, making it a top target for Democrats in 2014.  Eldridge, 27, is married to the co-founder of Facebook, will be able to self-fund the campaign and has already started spending massive amounts, making this an interesting race to watch.  
NY-21: Former Bush administration aide Elise Stefanik (R) has won the Republican nomination and will face Aaron Woolf (D), a documentary filmmaker in November.  Stefanik, 29, announced her candidacy before Rep. Bill Owens (D) announced his retirement.  After Owens' announcement, businessman Matt Doheny, who has run previously for the seat, entered the GOP primary as well.  Stefanik had already rallied much of the Republican establishment around her candidacy and was supported by Mitt Romney, Rep. Paul Ryan and American Crossroads as the candidate who would do better in the general election.  This is a prime pick up opportunity for the Republicans.  
NY-22: Rep. Richard Hanna (R) survived a primary challenge from state Assemblywoman Claudia Tenney 53-47.  Tenney was running to Hanna's right and was not perceived as a large threat.  However, after Cantor's surprising loss last week, this race, with similar dynamics, started gaining national attention.  There is no Democrat on the ballot in the general.  
There are two Senate races in Oklahoma this year.  Sen. James Inhofe (R) is running for re-election and faces minimal opposition.  Sen. Tom Coburn has announced his retirement, and there is a special election for the remaining two years of his term. This is a safe Republican seat and the competitive race was in the primary.  The two frontrunners were Rep. James Lankford and former state House Speaker T.W. Shannon.  In what had been forecast as a close race with a likely runoff if neither candidate cleared 50% in the six candidate field, Lankford engineered a 23 point victory, avoiding a runoff with over 57% of the vote to 34% for Shannon.
OK-5: With Rep. James Lankford (R) seeking the open Senate seat, the 5th district had a crowded primary, with six Republicans running.  No candidate received over 50% of the vote, so this race will go into a runoff on August 26.  The top two vote getters were Oklahoma Corporation Commissioner Patrice Douglas with 25% and former state Sen. Steve Russell with 27%.  This is a safe Republican district and whoever wins the runoff is likely to win the seat. 
Florida - Special Election
FL-19: Curt Clawson is the next Congressman from Florida's 19th district.  He easily beat Democrat April Freeman in the special general election to replace former Rep. Trey Radel (R). 
Iowa - Convention
IA-3:  No candidate in the 3rd district received over 35% on the June 3 primary, sending this race to a convention that took place this past Saturday. David Young, who came in fifth place in the primary, has won the nomination.  Young, Sen. Chuck Grassley's former Chief of Staff, first entered the Senate race for Tom Harkin's (D) open seat, then changed and ran for the 3rd district, which is open due to Tom Latham's (R) retirement.  Young faces Democrat state Sen. Staci Appel in the general.  With Republicans nominating a more mainstream, less antagonizing candidate than many expected to come out of a convention, this seat is expected to be very competitive. 
UT-4: Rep. Jim Matheson (D) is retiring, giving the Republicans a top pick up opportunity.   Mitt Romney won the 4th district by over 30 points, and without Matheson on the ticket, Republicans have the advantage. The Utah primary was yesterday, however the nominees for the 4th district were decided in a May convention.  Mia Love, former Saratoga Springs Mayor and 2012 GOP candidate is the Republican nominee.  Attorney Doug Owens is the Democratic nominee.  This race is Love's to lose. 
There are no competitive federal primaries or general election races in Maryland this year. 

June 11, 2014
Primary Results in ME, NV, ND, SC & VA
By Briana Huxley

House Majority Leader Eric Cantor defeated by conservative challenger

VA-7: In a huge upset, Randolph-Macon economics Professor David Brat defeated GOP House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, 56% to 44%. Turnout in the 7th district was low, around 12%. Though Brat was Cantor's most serious opponent in over a decade, Cantor was expected to easily defeat him on Tuesday, according to the polls. Brat faces Democratic nominee Jack Trammell, who is also a professor at Randolph-Macon College, in the general. This is a conservative district, but depending on the quality of the candidates, could become a race to watch.

The results for the remainder of Tuesday's primaries are below.



ME-2: Rep. Mike Michaud (D) is running for Governor, which set up competitive primaries for the Democrats and Republicans in the 2nd district. The Democratic primary was a fight between a progressive rising star, state Sen. Emily Cain and a socially conservative, pro-union candidate, state Sen. Troy Jackson. Cain had a slight edge going into the primary and won with over 70% of the vote. On the Republican side, Kevin Raye, a businessman-state Senator and former state Treasurer Bruce Poliquin faced off for the nomination. Poliquin won with 56% of the vote. This blue collar district has a slight Democratic edge, but is still expected to be competitive in the general.



NV-3: Democratic National Committeewoman and political consultant Erin Bilbray (D) is now the official nominee to take on Rep. Joe Heck (R) in the general election. This will be Nevada's closest watched race in 2014, though Heck is currently favored.

NV-4: Assemblyman Cresent Hardy won the Republican nomination in the district. The 4th district has the potential to become competitive, if the political environment continues to trend in the Republican's favor, but for now Rep. Steven Horsford (D) is sitting comfortably.

North Dakota


At-large: Rep. Kevin Cramer (R) had no primary opposition and his at-large seat is safe in the general.

South Carolina


Sen. Lindsey Graham (R) was able to avoid a runoff yesterday, receiving over 50% of the vote. While he faced six challengers in the Republican primary, none of them were able to gain traction or raise the funds necessary to take on Graham. Graham is not expected to have a tough general election race.


There are no competitive primaries or general elections in the Congressional delegation.



Ed Gillespie, former Republican National Committee chairman and lobbyist, won the Republican Senate nomination this past Saturday at a party convention. Gillespie was the most credible Republican challenger to Sen. Mark Warner (D), though he still has a long way to go to make this race competitive. His fundraising numbers have been impressive, but polling still gives the advantage to Warner.


VA-8: With Rep. Jim Moran (D) retiring, seven Democrats were vying for the nomination in this safe Democrat seat. Don Beyer, a former Lieutenant Governor and car dealership owner, won the nomination with 46% of the vote. Beyer had been the frontrunner in the race since he entered and is favored to be the next Congressman from the 8th district.

VA 10: The nominees for the open seat due to Rep. Frank Wolf's (R) retirement were decided in March and April. State Delegate Barbara Comstock won the Republican nomination in a firehouse primary, beating back conservative firebrand, state Delegate Bob Marshall. Fairfax County Supervisor John Foust became the official Democratic nominee in March when he was the only candidate to file. This will be a competitive general election.

June 4, 2014
June 3rd Primary Results
By Bo Harmon


In perhaps the most watched race of the day, Senator Thad Cochran and tea-party challenger Chris McDaniel will advance to a run off because neither broke 50% of the primary vote and ended less than 1% away from each other in the final tally. The runoff was a completely unexpected scenario as a little known third candidate in the primary ended up with less than 2% of the vote, but it was enough to hold both Cochran and McDaniel under 50%. The runoff will be held June 24. The winner will face former Democratic Congressman Travis Childers in the general election.

All Incumbents won their primaries and are not expecting difficult general election challenges. Of note, in MS-4: Republican Congressman Steven Palazzo held off a primary challenge from former Democratic Congressman Gene Taylor who had represented the district for many years and switched parties to run for his old seat in the primary. Palazzo won 50-43 with other minor candidates taking the balance.


Joni Ernst overwhelmingly won the Republican nomination against a crowded field including former Reliant Energy CEO Mark Jacobs and US Attorney Matt Whitaker. Ernst took over 55% of the vote to Jacobs' 17% with the balance going to the remaining candidates. Clearing the 35% threshold means Ernst wins the nomination outright without having to go to a state nominating convention, which could have presented great uncertainty to the process. Ernst will now face Democratic Congressman Bruce Braley in the general election and the race is expected to be one of the most competitive of the cycle.

Congressmen Dave Loebsack and Steve King both won their primaries easily and do not face strong general election challenges.

IA-1: In the Bruce Braley held open seat, Democrat Pat Murphy won the nomination with 37% of the vote over Swati Dandekar and Cedar Rapids Congresswoman Monica Vernon. Murphy has served as Speaker of the Iowa legislature for many years. He will face Republican Rod Blum in the general election which has the potential of becoming competitive but has been a consistently Democratic district to date.

IA-3: In the Tom Latham open seat, Republicans Brad Zaun and Robert Cramer will advance to a district convention to determine the nomination as no candidate received over 35% of the vote. The eventual nominee will face Democrat Staci Appel in what is expected to be one of the most competitive elections of the cycle.


Steve Daines secured the Republican nomination for Senate to take on Democrat John Walsh who was appointed to the seat upon Max Baucus’ confirmation as Ambassador. Daines is the current at-large member of Congress. Daines has maintained a lead in most polls to date and Republicans consider this one of their most likely pick up opportunities.

House At-Large:
In the open seat race for the state's sole Congressional seat, Republican Ryan Zinke will face Democrat John Lewis, a long time staffer to Sen. Baucus in the general election. The seat is expected to remain in Republican hands.



AL-6: In the six person primary to fill retiring Republican Spencer Bachus' seat, Republicans will face a runoff between Paul DeMarco and Gary Palmer in what is the most Republican district in one of the most Republican states in the country.


In California, the top two vote getters, regardless of party, advance to the general election.


CA-7: Rep. Ami Bera (D) and former Congressman and businessman Doug Ose (R) made it out of the primary, with 47 and 27 percent, respectively. This is a top race to watch going into the general.

CA-10: Rep. Denham (R), from the 10th district, will face bee farmer Michael Eggman (D) in the general election. This could be a race to watch as the general shapes up, but Denham starts out with an advantage.

CA-11: In the 11th district, Rep. Miller (D) is retiring, and the field quickly cleared for state Sen. Mark DeSaulnier (D). He advanced to the general, along with Republican Tue Phan though DeSaulnier is the easy favorite to win the general in this heavily Democratic seat.

CA-15: Eric Swalwell will face Republican Hugh Bussell who edged out a Democrat who was seeking to upset the incumbent Democrat. Swalwell is expected to retain the seat in the general election.

CA-17: Democrats have been dealing with a family feud in the 17th district, with former Obama administration official Ro Khanna (D) challenging sitting Rep. Mike Honda (D). Both advanced to the general, with Honda winning 49 percent of the vote and Khanna pulling in 26 percent. This could become a competitive race, but Honda currently has the advantage.

CA-21: Former Congressional aide Amanda Renteria (D) received 24 percent of the vote and will challenge Rep. David Valadao (R) in the general. Renteria is a top Democratic recruit and this will be a competitive general election race.

CA-25: The race to replace retiring Rep. McKeon (R) led to a competitive primary between three of the candidates, Lee Rogers (D), Tony Strickland (R) and Steve Knight (R). Strickland and Knight will advance to the general election, so the seat is assured to remain republican.

CA-26: Freshman Rep. Julia Brownley (D) will face off against Assemblyman Jeff Gorell (R) in November. A member of the U.S. Navy Reserve and a former prosecutor, Gorell is a formidable challenger and could make this race competitive.

CA-31: The 31st district has been a top target for Democrats, especially after Rep. Miller (R) announced his retirement. With four Democrats on the ballot and two serious Republican contenders, Democrats were worried that once again, the Democrats' votes would be too split and the two Republicans would make it out of the primary. The general election will be Republican businessman Paul Chabot against Democrat Pete Aguilar in this Democratic-leaning district.

CA-33: The 33rd district had a whopping 18 candidates running to replacing outgoing Rep. Waxman (D) in this reliably safe Democratic seat. Former LA Controller Wendy Greuel (D) and state Sen. Ted Lieu (D) battled it out on the Democratic side while most Republican votes went to Elan Carr. Lieu and Carr will advance to the general election.

CA-35: State Sen. Norma Torres (D) and Christina Gagnier (D) won the top two spots in the 35th district to succeed Rep. Negrete McLeod (D). Torres is expected to easily win the general.

CA-36: In the 36th district, Assemblyman Brian Nestande (R) and Rep. Raul Ruiz (D) formalized their general election. Ruiz is vulnerable going into the general. This will be a race to watch.

CA-45: With Rep. Campbell's (R) retirement, the top two spots went to state Sen. Mimi Walters (R) and Democrat Drew Leavens. Walters is the favorite to become the next Congresswoman from the 45th district.

CA-52: In the 52nd district, former member of the San Diego City Council Carl DeMaio (R) became the official challenger to vulnerable Rep. Scott Peters (D). This will be a competitive general election.

New Jersey


NJ-3: Rep. Jon Runyan (R) is retiring, setting off a competitive Republican primary and general election. In the primary, former Randolph Mayor Tom MacArthur beat former Bogota Mayor Steve Lonegan 60-40. MacArthur was leading Lonegan in the polls and is the best bet for Republicans to hold this seat. Burlington County Freeholder Aimee Belgard (D) won the Democratic nomination with 84 percent of the vote.

NJ-12: Rush Holt's (D) retirement in this safe Democratic seat led to a four-way race in the Democratic primary. The two frontrunners were state Sen. Linda Greenstein and state Assemblywoman Bonnie Watson Coleman. Coleman won with 43 percent of the vote and is expected to become the next Congresswoman in the Trenton area district.

New Mexico

Businessman and former state Republican Chair Allen Weh won the Republican nomination to take on Sen. Tom Udall (D). The Senate race is not expected to be competitive, and Tom Udall will keep his seat.

South Dakota

The nominees are officially set for the open U.S. Senate seat due to Sen. Johnson's (D) retirement. Former Gov. Mike Rounds won the Republican nomination, as expected. Rick Weiland is the Democratic nominee. South Dakota is one of the Republican's best chance at a pickup in 2014 and Rounds goes into the general election as the favorite.

All other incumbents easily won their primaries and none anticipate difficult general election battles.

May 21, 2014
Primary Results for GA, ID, AR, KY, PA and OR
By Bo Harmon

May 20 was a big day for primaries around the country. Here is a recap of some that took place.


Runoff: July 22

Senate: David Perdue and Jack Kingston advanced to a July 22 runoff. Vote percentages for all candidates were: David Perdue: 30%, Jack Kingston: 26%, Karen Handel: 22%, Phil Gingrey: 10%, Paul Broun: 10%. The eventual winner will face Michelle Nunn who secured the Democratic nomination with no real opposition. The general election may be competitive and is a top target of national Democrats.

House: With three House members running for Senate, there were three open seats in Georgia. In addition, Congressman Hank Johnson faced a tough primary challenge in his heavily Democratic district. All three open seats are in solidly Republican districts and are not expected to be competitive in the general election.

GA-1: Jack Kingston's open seat, centered in Savannah, had a field of six candidates and State Senator Buddy Carter and physician Bob Johnson will advance to a runoff. The general election is not expected to be competitive.

GA-4: Congressman Hank Johnson barely held off primary challenger DeKalb County Sheriff Tom Brown. Brown outraised Johnson financially, but ultimately came up short. This is a solidly Democratic district and not competitive in the general election.

GA-10: In Paul Broun's open seat, covering much of the east-central portion of the state, six candidates vied for the nomination with Mike Collins and Jody Hice headed to a runoff. Jody Hice is an evangelical preacher and radio talk show host who focused his campaign on social issues while local trucking company operator Mike Collins is the son of former Congressman Mac Collins. The general election is not expected to be competitive.

GA-11: Congressman Gingrey's suburban Atlanta district also had six people on the ballot with former Congressman Bob Barr and State Representative Barry Loudermilk advancing to the runoff. Loudermilk ran as a champion of tea party values while former member of Congress Bob Barr pointed to his record of conservative activism as reason to return to Congress. The general election is not expected to be competitive.

GA-12: Democrat John Barrow is one of the last remaining Blue Dog Democrats in the Congress and will face Augusta businessman Rick Allen who won a crowded Republican primary with over 50% of the vote. This top Republican target district went for Romney by 12 points.

All other Congressional incumbents won their primaries and none are expected to be competitive in the general election.


Senate: Republican Leader Mitch McConnell easily beat tea party challenger Matt Bevin in the GOP primary. Bevin was championed by conservative groups around the country but McConnell's superior fundraising and organizational capacity left him little to worry about. Democrats see this seat as a pick up opportunity with their nominee Secretary of State Alison Lundergan Grimes. Current polling has the race very close despite the outsized Republican performance in Kentucky at the Presidential level.

House: All house Incumbents won their primaries and none are expected to be competitive in the general election.


Senate: Incumbent Jim Risch won his primary and the seat is not expected to be competitive in the general election.

House: In the second district, Congressman Mike Simpson easily defeated tea party financed challenger Bryan Smith. The general election is not expected to be competitive.


Senate: Nominations were formalized for incumbent Democrat Mark Pryor and Republican challenger, Congressman Tom Cotton. Neither faced primary opposition. The general election between the two will be among the most closely watched in the country and is a key component to Republican attempts to retake Senate control.


AR-2: Retiring Congressman Tim Griffin's seat is expected to now go to Little Rock banker French Hill who won the Republican primary in this solidly GOP seat.

AR-4: In the race to fill Tom Cotton's open seat, State Senator Bruce Westerman beat young businessman Tommy Moll in the Republican primary. He will face former FEMA director James Lee Witt in the general election. The seat is solidly Republican, but Witt's high profile makes this a seat to keep an eye on.

Incumbents Steve Womack and Rick Crawford both won their primaries and do not expect difficult reelection battles in the general election.


Senate: In the Republican Primary, physician Monica Wehby defeated State Rep Jason Conger and a handful of minor candidates to win the nomination to challenge Democratic Incumbent Sen. Jeff Merkley. Wehby, a pediatric neurosurgeon, has run close with Merkley in recent polling.

House: All Oregon incumbents won their primaries and none are expected to have difficult reelection fights in the general election.



PA-6: In the race to replace retiring Rep Jim Gerlach, nominations were formalized for Republican Ryan Costello and Democrat Manan Trivedi. Costello is a business-oriented County Commissioner and Trivedi is a physician and Iraq War veteran who ran twice previously against Gerlach. Neither faced primary opposition and though the district leans Republican, Trivedi is an experienced candidate with a strong biography that could make the seat competitive.

PA-8: Rep. Mike Fitzpatrick will face Democratic challenger Kevin Strouse who defeated Shaughnessy Naughton in the Democratic primary 53-46 and presents a potentially serious challenge to Fitzpatrick in this suburban Philadelphia district though Fitzpatrick has consistently outperformed other Republicans in the district.

PA-9: Congressman Bill Shuster easily held off tea party oriented challenger Art Halvorson who partly self-funded a challenge to the incumbent. Shuster is not expected to have a significant general election challenge.

PA-13: In one of the most interesting races of the day, State Rep. Brendan Boyle handily won the Democratic nomination in this heavily Democratic open seat vacated by Allyson Schwartz. With four compelling and talented candidates, each with very different appeals and paths to victory, Boyle gathered almost 55% of the vote. He will face Republican Carson Adcock in the general election though it is not expected to be competitive.

All other Pennsylvania incumbents won their primaries and are not expecting difficult re-election fights.

May 7, 2014
Indiana, North Carolina, Ohio Primary Recap
By Briana Huxley

Primary season is upon us, with eleven states holding their primaries in May. Yesterday, Indiana, North Carolina and Ohio kicked us off, with the results below.

North Carolina

U.S. Senate: In one of the most closely watched races on Tuesday, state Assembly Speaker Thom Tillis (R) garnered more than 40% of the vote in the GOP Senate primary and was thus able to avoid a runoff. There were eight candidates in the GOP primary, with physician Greg Brannon and Pastor Mark Harris being the two strongest challengers, both from Tillis' right. Polls show Tillis in a very close race with incumbent Democratic Senator Kay Hagan in November.

U.S. House: There were several North Carolina Congressional races to watch, especially in the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th and 12th Districts. In the 2nd District, Rep. Ellmers (R) easily beat her primary challenger, Frank Roche, but it was the Democratic primary that gained all of the attention. Three candidates were running; "American Idol" runner-up Clay Aiken, former state commerce secretary Keith Crisco and mental health counselor Toni Morris. Aiken had a strong name ID going into the primary, but Crisco outspent Aiken, leading to a competitive primary. Aiken currently leads by 369 votes, with 41% of the vote. There is no declared winner yet. This will be an uphill climb for Democrats; Romney took the district with 58 percent of the vote in 2012.

One of the most vulnerable incumbents in the first round of primaries was Rep. Walter Jones (R - NC 3). Challenged by former Bush administration official Taylor Griffin in the primary, Jones had his toughest race to date. Griffin had the backing of establishment Republicans, but his background as a Bush staffer and lobbyist had some questioning whether he could win over this libertarian leaning district. In the end, Jones was able to hold on to his seat, beating Griffin, 51 percent to 45 percent. The general is not expected to be competitive.

With Rep. Coble (R) retiring, the open seat in NC 6 will go into a runoff, as expected. Frontrunner Rockingham County District Attorney Phil Berger Jr. made it into the Republican runoff, along with Baptist Pastor Mark Walker. Whoever wins the GOP runoff is the favorite for the general election. Romney won the 6th district with 58 percent of the vote in 2012. In NC 12, state Rep. Alma Adams (D) narrowly avoided a runoff, winning just over 40% of the vote in both the special and regular primaries. Rep. Watt (D) resigned from this safe Democratic seat earlier this year.

In the 7th district, former state Sen. David Rouzer beat out former state Sen. Woody White, 53 percent to 40 percent in the Republican primary. This is a conservative seat, with Rouzer now favored to win the general. The seat is being vacated by Blue Dog Rep. Mike McIntyre (D) and is considered one of the Republicans' best chances for a pickup.


In Ohio, the field is now set for the two most competitive races in the Buckeye state for 2014 - the 6th and 14th districts. In the 6th district, Rep. Bill Johnson (R) will face former state Rep. Jennifer Garrison (D). In the 14th district, freshman Rep. David Joyce (R) survived his primary challenge from Matt Lynch. This was Joyce's first primary election. He was appointed to the general election ballot after Rep. LaTourette (R) retired after winning the primary nod in 2012. Attorney Michael Wager is now the official Democratic challenger. Both of these races are on the DCCC's radar and could shape up into competitive general election races. Speaker John Boehner (R) also easily survived a primary challenge from JD Winteregg, taking 69 percent of the vote.


Indiana has been relatively quiet in 2014. There were no major primary challengers to incumbents.Of the nine congressional seats, only Rep. Walorski's (R - IN 2) is shaping up to be a competitive race. Walorski won the open seat in 2012 by fewer than 4,000 votes. Joe Bock, a University of Notre Dame professor, won the Democratic primary. This is a race that could become competitive, but Walorski has the upper hand for now.

April 16, 2014
2014 Primaries: Turnout to Impact the November Ballot
By Ashley Cox and Mary Beth Hart

More and more, voters believe the only thing that matters is whether or not a candidate is a Democrat or a Republican. Some even see it as a game of R's versus D's-with the Republican team leading the U.S. House with 240 players to the Democrat's 192, while the Democrats lead the U.S. Senate by four seats over the Republicans. In a game like this, voters are distracted from a candidate's platform on important issues and instead base their decisions on party ties. A primary election does not change the score of the game, but it does determine the caliber of the party's player come November. As primary elections continue, it's time to shift focus away from partisanship and toward the important issues affecting our nation and our economy.

It is time to get involved in the primary and become educated on primary candidate platforms. By doing this, voters will be able to shape the general election ballot. Let's make the primaries PRIMARY.

Primary election turnout has historically been lower than general election turnout-despite the fact that primary results directly determine the general election ballot. Average voter turnout in the 2012 statewide primaries slumped to the lowest level since presidential primaries proliferated in 1972. Based on the 41 states which held statewide primaries in both parties, turnout was 17.3%, a 40-point underdog to the nearly 60% turnout in the actual presidential elections1. In order for the November ballot to accurately represent the voice of a candidate's district, voter turnout must be strong in the primary election.

Low primary turnout means that less of the electorate has shaped the general election ballot.

Primary election voters tend to be more radical voters who support their candidate regardless of electability in the general election2. In recent years, U.S. House and Senate primary election candidates who were considered more ideologically-extreme, defeated well-established and comparatively moderate candidates. For example, in 2012 Tea Party candidates, Richard Mourdock (IN), Sharron Angle (NV), and Ken Buck (CO) all who triumphed in primary elections over more mainstream candidates, proved unpalatable to the general electorate in November and were not elected to office.

Primary election participation is especially pertinent to ensure the best viable candidate in each party is on the ballot for the general election.

Primary election voters determine the caliber of candidates for November's ballot while general election voters tend to vote along party lines. Furthermore, because approximately 60% of congressional districts are not swing districts3, a dominant party's primary candidate who makes it to the November ballot will most likely be elected. These primary elections are especially competitive in the advantaged party of constituencies in which one party has a clear advantage in terms of voter loyalties.

It's time to make the primary election the important election. Learn about the primary elections in your district and educate yourself on your primary candidate's platform. Together, we can shape the November ballot and bring the focus back to electing candidates based on their stance on the issues important to our success.

  1. "National Primary Turnout Hits New Record Low." Bipartisan Policy Center, 10 Oct. 2012.
  2. Gerber, Elisabeth R. "Primary Election Systems and Representation." Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1998): 304-24.
  3. Hirano, Shigeo, James M. Snyder, and Michael M. Ting. "Distributive Politics with Primaries." The Journal of Politics 71.04 (2009): 1467-480.

April 9, 2014
The Rising Cost Per Vote
By Bo Harmon and Briana Huxley

The cost of elections is increasing. Swing districts and voters are decreasing. Billions of dollars are being spent to target a smaller and smaller number of voters. 

The 2014 elections are projected to be the most expensive midterms to date. Each election cycle, the cost of elections increases substantially. In 1998, candidates, parties and outside groups spent $1.6 billion total on Congressional races. By 2012, that figure more than doubled to $3.7 billion and is expected to rise again in 2014.

(Source: opensecrets.org)

Counterintuitively, while election spending increases each cycle, there are fewer swing seats and competitive races taking place. According to the Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index, there were 164 swing seats in the House in 1998. By 2013, that had dropped to 90. Even fewer, maybe 20-30, are actually competitive.

It isn't just the reduced number of competitive seats, there are fewer and fewer swing voters available to be persuaded in the competitive elections that DO exist. BIPAC uses a formula to determine the number of true swing voters in a given state or district. Over the last eight years, we take the lowest performance of ANY Republican and the lowest performance of ANY Democratic candidate and assign that low-water mark as a partisan baseline. We estimate the number of votes likely to be cast in 2014 and subtract the percentage that is base Republican and base Democratic and are left with the number of real swing votes in a state. You can see from the chart below that a very small number of votes are actually at play in the most competitive Senate races. In several states, the swing voters represent less than 20% of expected turnout. Only 13% of expected voters in NC are swing, 12% in GA, 18% in AK and 12% in CO. More money may be pouring into races, but there are increasingly fewer voters to persuade.

West Virginia 550,000 187,000
275,000 170,600
North Carolina 3,000,000 1,320,000
1,500,000 390,000
Kentucky 1,400,000 490,000
700,000 392,000
Michigan 3,700,000 1,258,000
1,850,000 962,000
South Dakota 320,000 99,200
160,000 99,200
Iowa 1,200,000 444,000
600,000 336,000
Georgia 2,700,000 1,323,000
1,350,000 324,000
Alaska 260,000 117,000
130,000 46,800
Montana 410,000 155,800
205,000 110,700
Colorado 1,900,000 760,000
950,000 228,000
Arkansas 820,000 295,200
410,000 229,600
Virginia 2,500,000 825,000
1,250,000 650,000
New Hampshire 520,000 218,400
260,000 114,400




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